Fig.2. Density structure of oceans as function of climate.
Values in Atmosphere E = evaporation; P =
Values in Ocean High prod = high primary productivity; Lo w prod = low primary productivity.
Shaded areas are zones of potential anoxicity based in part by analogy with the modern North
Pacific (see Reid, 1965, p. 52).
Case A (non-glacial). High-latitude water (HLWa) temperature greater than 5°C. Deep water formed
at mid-latitudes. No water mass formation from freezing of sea ice (after Wilde and Berry, 1982, p.
Case B (pre-postglacial). High-latitude water (HLWb) temperature less than 5°C but greater than
freezing point. Deep water formed at high latitudes. No significant water mass formation from
freezing of sea ice (after Wilde and Berry, 1982, p. 216).
Case C (glacial) (modern Pacific Ocean). Major water mass formation at high latitudes from
freezing of sea ice (after Monin et al. 1977, p. 38).