Country:  Korea

From:  KORDI (Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute)
       1990 Annual Report

                      CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

Chemical Oceanography Laboratory
Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory

Chemical Oceanography

YANG, Dong Beom  Head, Dr., Chemical
LEE, Soo Hyung Principal Research Scientist,
Ph. D., Analytical Chemistry
KIM, Eun Soo Senior Research Scientist,
Ph. D., Chemical Oceanography
OH, Jae Ryoung Senior Research Scientist,
M. S., Analytical Chemistry

     The major goals of Chemical Oceanography Laboratory are to understand
the chemical characteristics of the seas and the cycling of chemical
substances in the marine ecosystem, and to develop conceptual and practical
ways to protect the marine environment from increasing human perturbation. 
Development of analytical methods and instrumentation for the determination
of chemical constituents and rates of oceanic processes in the marine
environment is also one of the basic functions of the laboratory.
     We are concerned about not only the descriptive aspect, that is, the
observable composition, but also the origin, fate and spatio-temporal
variations of chemical constituents.
     This kind of study provides the data indispensable in understanding the
diverse oceanic processes, and in establishing strategies for the use of
marine resources and for the protection of the marine environment.
     The scarcity of important chemicaL constituents in the marine environment
demands a great deal of sensitivity in the techniques to determine their
concentration.  Hence special emphasis is placed on improving and developing
analytical techniques for the determination of trace metals and organics in
seawater, biota and sediments.  Efforts are also made to develop the measur-
ing techniques to determine the rates of -material transfer and the micro-
structure of biochemically important parameters in the marine environment.
       Natural ecosystems are activities where important transfers of organic
matter and trace elements occur rapidly in a complex manner.  The emphasis in
this work is put on the studies of material transfer which define the rates mid
fluxes of biogenic materials in the marine ecosystem and assess the behavior
of diverse pollutants through the marine food web.  How organisms affect and
are effected by seawater and sediments are also studied.
     Ten research projects, composed of four supported by the Ministry of
Science and Technology, three sponsored by private industries, and the three
supported by KORDI have been carried out.
     The purpose of "A Study on the Development of Chemical and Microbiological
Technology for the Control of Marine Oil Pollution(3rd year)" was to develop
oil spill protection and clean-up technology.  Computerized advance planning
to countermeasure oil spills in the sea was also developed.  Physico-chemical
and microbiological studies were done to assess the environmental impacts of
stranded oil and to prepare the suitable clean-up techniques.  A personal
computer-based Oil Spill Advance Planning, system named (KOSAP), was further
extended for simulation models, environmental sensitivity maps, and decision-
making program.
     The purpose of "A Study oil the Coastal Pollution and Monitoring (3rd year)"
was to assess the present status of coastal pollution in Korea and  to
develop pollution monitoring techniques.  Mussels were collected at 16
sampling sites located along  the coastlines, and analyzed for 14 heavy metals
in order to assess the metal pollution status of Korea; analysis was based on
the world wide data obtained by the International Mussel Watch program.

      "A Study on the Atlas of Marine Resources in the Adjacent Seas to Korea
(4th year of the South Sea)" is devoted to mapping chemical variables in the
sea and providing basic data for marine resources in the Korean waters. 
Dissolved oxygen, Ph, dissolved nutrients and plant pigments were measured
in the water column.  In addition primary productivity was widely investigated
in conjunction with nutrient and light regime.

     During the study on the "Marine Environmental Impact Assessments for the
Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant", chemical constituents of the seawater in the
vicinity of the nuclear power plant were measured because the cooling water
might affect the marine ecosystem.
     "Marine Environmental Studies in the Cultivation Ground of laver in Haenam
Bay" was performed since laver production in Haenam area was claimed to be
largely affected by the construction of a tide embankment.  Emphasis is laid
on the behavior of nitrogenous nutrients which are essential for the growth
of laver.  Organic carbon and nitrogen contents of laver are studied to
investigate the possible impact of changing nutrient fields on laver

     The purpose of "Environmental Study around Tongyong-Anjong Industrial
Complex" is to assess the impacts on the environment during the construction
phase of the industrial site.  Seasonal variations of environmental
parameters are being carefully investigated because the adjacent seas are
important aquacultural grounds.
     Institute - sponsored projects are "A Study on the Supplementation of
Laboratory Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Pollutants", "Chemical
Speciation of Trace Metals in Coastal Waters' and "Heavy Metal Compositions
of Animals from Hydrothermal Vents and Coldwater Seeps."

Marine Natural Products Chemistry Lab.

       HONG, Gi Hoon  Head, Ph.  D., Chemical
       SHIN, Jongheon  Senior Research Scientist,
       Ph.D.,Marine Natural Products Chemistry
     Marine Natural Products Chemistry : Marine Natural Products Chemistry,
which is basically the chemical investigation of marine organisms, is a young
field of science in Korea.  Established in 1989, the Marine Natural Products
Chemistry Laboratory focuses its research programs on the isolation and
structural determination of biologically active metabolites from marine
organisms.  The major target organisms will be tunicates, sponges, gorgonians,
and bryozoans found in the Korean and Antarctic waters.  Among marine 
microorganisms, symbiotic bacteria and Actinomycetes will be primarily
investigated for the isolation of novel biologically active substances.
     Additional research areas include:
*      Synthetic derivatization of marine natural products and screening for
novel biological activities. 
*      Chemical ecology of symbiotic marine bacteria and their hosts. 
*      Chemosystematic study of colonial marine invertebrates.

     Ocean Biogeochemistry The Ocean Biogeochemistry Group is devoted to
determining and understanding on a global scale, the processes controlling the
time-varying fluxes of carbon and associated biogenic elements in the ocean,
Moreover, the group is evaluating their related exchanges with the atmos-
phere, sea floor, and continental boundaries.The ultimate goal is the
development of a capability to understand the response of oceanic bio-
geochemical processes to anthropogenic perturbation and climate change. The
major research efforts are concentrated on the processes occurring in the
upper water column, benthic regimes and sedimentary records using various

Research Activities in 1990

Government-sponsored projects

     A Study on the Strategy for the Development of Deep Seabed Mineral
Resources-Environmental Impacts (1st year) : This study is a part of the
ongoing Deep Sea Mineral Exploitation Project of the Geology and Geophysical
Research Division of KORDI.  The objectives are : (1) to develop an
environmental data base to meet the requirements of Korean and the
international organization's marine environmental regulations, (2) to develop
a first order predictive capability for determining potential environmental
effects, and (3) to help develop an information base for the preparation of
environmental guidelines for industry and government.  In the first year, an
extensive literature survey was produced to study national and international
laws concerning the environmental protection, to collect the existing
knowledge on the possible mining sites, and to develop oceanographic
instrumentation to be used in the sea.

     Coastal Ocean Flux Study in the Mouth of the Yellow Sea (1st year) -The
mouth, which is located in the southwestern part of the Yellow Sea, is very
dynamic and heavily perturbed by humans among the continental shelves in the
world.  The objectives of the project are : (1) to evaluate the fluxes of
biogenic elements across the mouth of the Yellow Sea, (2) to understand the
formation of chlorophyll fronts and annual cycles of primary productivity, (3)
to estimate fluxes of biogenic materials across the land and sea-floor
boundaries, and (4) to link modern biogeochemical processes with the past
biogeochemical sedimentary records.  In the first year, the existing data were
gathered and analyzed, and new time series sediment traps were tested, and
shipboard analytical methods were elaborated.  This project is recognized as
a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) of the Scientific Committee
on Oceanic Research (SCOR).  JGOFS is one of the largest international efforts
to understand global climate change.

 Industry-sponsored project
     Environmental Assessment of Suncheon Bay : This project was carried out
along with the Chemical Oceanography Laboratory of KORDI.  The impact of
organic industrial waste discharge on the intermittently freshwater driven
shallow marine bay was assessed.  Early diagenesis of organic matter in the
sediment column was also investigated.

 Institute-sponsored project
     Introduction to Chemical Oceanography : A text book of Chemical
Oceanography with emphasis on bIogeochemistry, is being written for Korean
marine scientists and students to introduce the role of oceans in the global
climate change.
     Long-Term Research Plan on Marine Natural Products : A strategy is being
developed to identify the needs of marine natural products since the Marine
Natural Products Chemistry is quite new in Korea and requires state-of-the-
art technology.

International cooperation project

     KORDI participates in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
project, 'Marine contaminant and sediment transport (RAS/8 /065)." The
objective is to understand sediment and contaminant transport processes in
the marine environments utilizing the existing natural and man-made


Government  Sponsored:
       Environmental study for deep sea mineral exploitation           July 1990 -
July 1991: G. H. Hong
       A study, on the fluxes and cycling of chemicals in the mouth of Yellow Sea
(Korean JGOFS program) July  1990-July  1991:  G. H. Hong/S. H. Lee
       A study, on the atlas of marine resources in the adjacent Seas to Korea
-South Sea Oct. 1989-Oct. 1990:  K. S. Nam/S. H. Lee
       A study on the development of chemical and microbiological technology
for the control of marine oil pollution  Oct. 1989-Oct. 1990:  D. B. Yang
       A study on the coastal water pollution and monitoring Oct. 1989-Oct.
1990:  S. H. Lee
       A study on the process and the evolution of coastal pollution July 1990-
June 1991:  D. B. Yang

Industry Sponsored
       Environmental assessment of Suncheon Bay (Bohae Industrial Co.) May
1989-Apr. 1990:  G. H. Hong/C. K. Kim
       Oceanographic survey, in the adjacent seas to the Wolsong Nuclear 
Power Plant (Korea Electric Power Corp.) Nov. 1989-Dec. 1990:  S. W. Kang/D. B.
       Marine environmental studies in the cultivation ground of Larvae in
Haenam area ( Haenam Farmland Improvement Association)  July 1990-May 1991: 
D. B. Yang
       Environmental study around Tongyong-Anjong Industrial Complex (The
Korea Land Development Corporation)  Sep. 1990-Nov. 1991:  J. R. Oh
Institute Sponsored:
       Introduction to Chemical Oceanography May 1990-Apr. 1991:  G. H. Hong/S.
H. Lee
       Long term research plan on marine natural products  Sep. 1990-Apr. 1991: 
J. H. Shin
       A study on the assessment technique of marine environment  May 1990-
Apr. 1991:  D. B. Yang
       Chemical speciation of trace metals in coastal waters  Sep. 1990-Apr.
1991:  J. R. Oh
       Heavy metal compositions of animals from hydrothermal vents and
coldwater seeps  Nov. 1990-Apr. 1991:   E. S. Kim

Han, M. W. and H. I. Yoon.  Effect of sea salts in the major anion distribution in
an ice core of the Fildes Peninsula ice field : A preliminary study result.  Kor. 
J. Pol.  Res. 1(2) : 17 - 24.
Lee, S. H., K. T. Kim and S. H. Kim.  Trace metals in the surface waters of Maxwell
Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.  Kor.  J. Pol.  Res. 1(2) : 11- 16.
Suk, B. C., T. Nakamura *, N. Nakai *, and A. Taira*.  Radio-carbon age
determination by Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique and its
application to the Korean Seas.  Quat.  Res. 4(1) : 27-40.
Yang, J. S. and D. S. Jeon.  Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in
Suncheon Bay.  J. Oceanol.  Soc.  Korea 25(1) : 21- 25.